Two years ago was the first time I taught the distributive property to students.  There was one (and I think only one) lesson in our textbook and it had students relate the distributive property to basketball.  In theory, it’s a great idea, and I’m sure I could have livened up that lesson to make it even better.  But it was flat and I’m sure the students didn’t really retain or master the skill.  Last year, I wanted to introduce it on our own before getting to that basketball lesson.  It went something like this…

“Okay, so the distributive property is when you take a multiplication problem and you break it down into two or more smaller problems that are easier to manage.  Choose one number to keep the same.  Then break down the second number into smaller numbers that equal that number and add them all together like so…”

4 x 5 = n

“Since 5’s are easy to work with I’ll keep the 5 the same.  I know two 2’s are 4 so I’ll choose 2’s.  I could do this problem like this…”

(5 x 2) + (5 x 2) = 10 + 10 = 20

“So, you see, the distributive property is super simple because it’s just breaking it down into pieces we know.  Let’s practice”

Golden.  It’s super simple.  I even said so.

Except it wasn’t.  My kids had no idea what the heck was going on, why I was speaking another language, and they certainly had no idea the point of any of this.  So I was sent brainstorming to find out how to make a new lesson for the next day that might actually make sense for them.  I knew I needed to back up and begin with something more concrete.  So, I headed over to my first grade friend’s room and I asked her if I could borrow some Unifix cubes.A Hands-On introduction the Distributive Property of Multiplication.  I love this!

I thought after the lesson fail the day before, that I better introduce the topic in small groups where students could focus and join in on our lesson.  So, the next day we split into groups and I started each lesson by taking out some red cubes and arranging them in two equal columns.  I asked students to write the multiplication equation for what was shown.  This was super easy for them; they’d been doing arrays since second grade.  I asked them to keep that on their boards as I showed an identical arrangement in blue unifix cubes and asked them to write the multiplication equation for that one as well.

Teach the distributive property by using area models with Unifix cubes.

I put rows together and asked them to write the equation for that array on their boards.  At this point they had written,

7 x 2 =14

7 x 2 = 14

7 x 4 = 28

Distributive Property with Unifix Cubes

I used parenthesis to show the students how they could write their top two equations using the distributive property.  We talked about how each parenthesis represents one color and that I could add another set to the right in another color and that would add an additional equation with parenthesis.

Teach the distributive property concretely using linking cubes.

I then took black cubes and laid them on top of the ones below (you can see the red and blue peeking out just a bit).  We talked about how the black is what they’ll normally see (a rectangle, an array, the whole number) but they can break it down into smaller parts by separating it.  We then began working on another problem.

{In my spontaneous grabs for cubes, we ended up working on the same equation- just the turn-around fact- though that was not my intention.}

Let students experience the distributive property of multiplication by having them maneuver linking cubes.

I created a new array using the unifix cubes and we wrote the multiplication equation that was represented.  Again, easy peasy and the kids felt confident.  Then I pulled one column to the other side.

Introduce the distributive property using locking cubes so that students can manipulate the rows and columns to really see the breakdown.I then wrote the two multiplication equations that were shown and reminded students that the addition sign in the middle shows that when we put the two together we get the whole.

Great post on teaching the distributive property!

Then I had a student move another column over.  This time, I asked students to write the two equations on their own before we went over them.  They were understanding how the two parts make the whole.  We continued to use cubes in different combinations for guided practice before they completed their exit sheet independently.

The next day, students practiced independently using my Distributive Property Mustache You the Equation Task Cards.
Practice the distributive property with cute mustache themed task cards.

There are two sets in the pack.  The first set lists the smaller equations and students rewrite the equation in traditional form.  It includes equations with two sets of parenthesis only as a beginning practice for students.

Practice using the distributive property of multiplication with these mustache themed task cards.The second set includes the traditional equation for students to break down using the distributive property.  There are no specific directions for students so that you can let them write the equations as they choose, or tell them the amount of pieces it needs to be broken into.

You can choose to do the two sets on separate days, or you can intermix the sets (even/odd, 1st half/2nd half) for a mixed review.  To check them out, click either of the pictures above or click here to head to my TpT store.

Do you have any great ideas for introducing the distributive property to students?